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HEALTH ISSUES
 
Two health issues with Volpino's are PLL Primary Lens Luxation and Leishmania.
     
PLL or Primary Lens Luxation is painful, eventually go blind, genetic issue effecting the eyes, get DNA testing done from the offa.org a swab test for $65.
Those who belong to this club and breed all have been tested and are Clear/Normal. Those that do not belong to this club and breed we don't know. In Italy not everyone does the DNA test. Always best to see Proof of Certificate of parents or grandparents of puppies.
 
Leishmania A flebotomo or also called (mosquito in Italy or sand fly) type of parisite, goes dorment then revives years later. Found in Italy and other parts of the world, not in the United States but it is working it's way from from South America. So when you get a Volpino or any dog from other countries it's always good to get a blood test testing for what ever parasites or diseases that are in that country.
 
PLL Primary Lens Luxation - http://www.offa.org/dna testing/pll.html
        Buyer beware if you buy a dog in Europe have Vet test first.
LEISHMANIA - http://bakerinstitute.vet.cornell.edu/animal health/page.php?id=1099
   1.   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canine_leishmaniasis
   2.    http://www.petsinitaly.com/new-vaccine-for-leishmania-in-dogs/
   3.    http://www.cdc.gov/parasites/leishmaniasis/diagnosis.html
   4.    http://www.petmd.com/dog/conditions/infectious-parasitic/c_dg_leishmaniasis
   5.    http://www.cdc.gov/parasites/leishmaniasis/
   6.    http://www.medicinenet.com/leishmaniasis/page7.htm
   7.   http://www.plosone.org/article/info%253Adoi%252F10.1371%252Fjournal.pone.0056374
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   If you think your dog has Leishmania have your vet take blood tests send results to Italian Vet to be reviewed and prescribe medication
Leishmania treatment is now available in America
 
 
 
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